I am not a professional photographer, although I have sold my soul a few times with some product photography gigs. Either way over the years I have figured out what items I need for shooting my adventures. I keep it simple in the backcountry for a few reasons. One being weight. Too much gear is too heavy. If I were getting paid to shoot, I would carry the extra gear, but there really is no reason otherwise. It is also too complicated to have multiple lens, and be changing them in the field. I know you photo geeks are going to tell me otherwise, but for me one lens has worked fine. With an emphasis on simplicity, here is my typical gear list.
Nikon D7000- I didn't pick this camera out. It literally picked me. I had some astronomy equipment for sale and the gentleman wanting it, had photography equipment. We did a near even trade and I found myself the owner of this camera. If I had picked a camera, I probably would have selected something lighter, with less features. There are parts of the camera that I never use, such as the onboard editing software. Although the body is heavy, it is burly. I have dropped the body a few times, with little more then cosmetic damage. The camera gets tossed into multiple packs, tossed in the back of the car, and set on all sorts of surfaces without skipping a beat. I use a Clik Elite Wrist Strap. This has a simple design and has resisted dirt well. The D7000 is a tough built camera that has held up to backcountry use and the elements surprisingly well.
Nikkor 35-200 3.5-4.5- I won't lie I have a very basic understanding of lens. The camera body originally came with two AF-S DX lens. The fisheye was eliminated quickly, as I found little use for it at the time. Looking back now that lens would have been great for my night sky shots. The second lens was a similar lens to what I use now. Somewhere in the middle of the backcountry the lens just stopped working. Something internally decided to quit. I looked into repairing it but the cost was nearly half the price of the lens. Instead I opted to go old school and get a manual lens with great glass for 1/5 of the price. The basic lens is heavy but durable. I don't worry about it quitting unexpectedly in the backcountry. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity.
Gitzo Mountaineering Tripod- If there is a better tripod on the market, I have not come across it. The Gitzo line of mountaineering tripods are both lightweight and durable. The high level of craftsmanship provides a stable base on any surface in the backcountry. The lightweight design makes it hard not to bring it on every adventure. I combined the tripod with a Joby ball head as I found it to be the best weight, price and use of anything I researched. Both the tripod and the ball head have held up well to the weather and dust/dirt.
Protection- Depending on the trips conditions I will bring the Ortlieb V-Shot Camera Case. As mentioned in the review the case has held up well and protected my camera and accessories. On short day trips I may chose to leave this case at home and just cary the camera loose in the chosen pack. Along with the case I always have a camera rain sleeve handy. The sleeve allows me to shoot in the rain or near spray from waterfalls/ocean/etc. It weighs nearly nothing and is durable enough to use on multiple occasions.
Power- I have looked into multiple options for powering the D7000 over the years. Because the length of my trips rarely exceeds four days I have found individual batteries to be the best option. Depending on if I plan to shoot a lot of star trails I typically only bring one battery for 1-2 day trips. If I am going on a multi-day in a photo heavy area I will bump that down to one battery per day. When in cool weather I try to sleep with the batteries in my sleeping bag to avoid unnecessary power loss from the cold.
Accessories- Most trips that involve night sky photos I will bring a small wireless remote and a wired shutter lock. The remote is a simple device that allows hands free operation of the shutter. The wired shutter lock has programable features that allow for shooting long exposures or multiple shots over the course of the night. Both styles have their use and are light enough that bringing both is not an issue. If I plan to shot waterfalls I will make sure to bring an adjustable ND filter. Because the lighting is varied on trips bringing an adjustable filter allows me to find the right balance for daytime long exposures.
It is not a huge list of gear that I use for backcountry adventures, but it covers my needs. Finding the balance between weight, use and photography desire is key to picking out your gear. There is no definitive list that all photo nerds should take with them, as everyones uses are highly individualized.